Medicinal Biochemistry

1. Introduction to biochemistry : Cell and its biochemical organization, transport process across the cell membranes. Energy rich compounds; ATP, Cyclic AMP and their biological significance.

Enzymes: Definition; Nomenclature; IUB classification; Factor affecting enzyme activity; Enzyme action; enzyme inhibition. Isoenzymes and their therapeutic and diagnostic applications;
Coenzymes and their biochemical role and deficiency diseases.

3 Carbohydrate metabolism: Glycolysis, Citric acid cycle (TCA cycle), HMP shunt, Glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, glycogenesis. Metabolic disorders of carbohydrate metabolism (diabetes mellitus and glycogen storage diseases); Glucose, Galactose tolerance test and their significance; hormonal regulation of carbohydrate metabolism.

4 Lipid metabolism: Oxidation of saturated (-oxidation); Ketogenesis and ketolysis; biosynthesis of fatty acids, lipids; metabolism of cholesterol; Hormonal regulation of lipid metabolism. Defective metabolism of lipids (Atheroslerosis, fatty liver, hypercholesterolmiea).

Coenzyme system involving in Biological Oxidation. Electron Transport Chain (its mechanism in energy capture; regulation and inhibition);Uncouplers of ETC;Oxidative Phosphorylation.
Protein and amino acid Metabolism: Protein turn over,Nitrogen Balance,Catabolism of Amino Acids (Transmmation, deamination and decarboxylation). Urea Cycle and its metabolic disorders; Production of Bile Pigments; Hyperbilirubinemia, Porphoria, Jaundice. Metabolic disorders of Amino Acids.
Nucleic acid metabolism: Metabolism of Purine and Pyramidine nucleotides; Protein Synthesis; Genetic Code; Inhibition of Protein synthesis;Mutation and Repair mechanism; DNA Replication (semiconservative/Onion Peel models) and DNA Repair Mechanism.

Introduction to Clinical Chemistry: Cell; Composition; Malfunction; Roll of the chemical chemistry laboratory.
The Kidney Funtion Tests: Role of Kidney, Laboratory tests for normal funciton includes-
a) Urine analysis (macroscopic and physical examination, quantiative and semiquantitative tests).
b)Test for NPN constituents. (Creatinine/urea clearance, determination of blood and urine creatinine, urea and uric acid)
Urine Concentration TestUrinary Tract Calculi (stones)
Liver Function Tests: Physiological role of liver, metabolic, storage, excretory, protective, circulatory functions and funciton in blood coagulation.
a)Test for Hepatic Dysfunction-Bile Pigments metabolism
b) Test for Hepatic function test- Serum bilirubin, Urine bilirubin, and urine urobilinogen.
C) Dye tests of excretory function.
Tests based upon abnormalities of serum proteins
Selected enzyme tests.

i)Lipid Profile Tests: Lipoproteins, compositon, functions. Determination of serum lipids, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and Triglycerides.
ii) Immunochemical Techniques for determination of hormone levels and protein levels in serum for endocrine diseases and infectious diseases.
Radioimmuno assay (RIA) and Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA)
iii) Electrolytes: Body water, compartments, water balance and electrolyte distribution. Determination of sodium, calcium potassium, chlorides, bicarbonates in the body fluids.