Pharmaceutical Analysis I


Pharmaceutical analysis:
Definition and scope
Different techniques of analysis
Methods of expressing concentration
Primary and secondary standards
Preparation and standardization of various molar and normal solutions (Oxalic acid, sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, sodium thiosulphate, sulphuric acid, potassium permanganate, and ceric ammonium sulphate)

(b) Errors:
Sources of errors
Types of errors
Methods of minimizing errors
Accuracy, precision, and significant figures

Sources of impurities in medicinal agents
Limit tests

• Acid base titration:
Theories of acid base indicators
Classification of acid base titrations
Theory involved in titrations of strong, weak, and very weak acids and bases
Neutralization curves

• Non aqueous titration:
Acidimetry and alkalimetry titration
Estimation of Sodium benzoate and Ephedrine HCl

• Precipitation titrations:
Mohr's method
Volhard's method
Modified Volhard's method
Fajans method
Estimation of sodium chloride

• Complexometric titration:
Metal ion indicators
Masking and demasking reagents
Estimation of Magnesium sulphate and calcium gluconate

• Gravimetry:
Principle and steps involved in gravimetric analysis
Purity of the precipitate (co-precipitation and post precipitation)
Estimation of barium sulphate

• Basic principles, methods, and application of diazotisation titration

• Redox titrations:
Concepts of oxidation and reduction
Types of redox titrations (principles and applications), Cerimetry, Iodimetry, Iodometry, Bromatometry, Dichrometry
Titration with potassium iodate

• Electrochemical methods of analysis
Conductivity cell
Conductometric titrations

• Potentiometry:
Electrochemical cell
Construction and working of reference (Standard hydrogen, silver chloride electrode, and calomel electrode) and indicator electrodes (metal electrodes and glass electrode)
Methods to determine end point of potentiometric titration

• Polarography:
Ilkovic equation
Construction and working of dropping mercury electrode and rotating platinum electrode