Human Anatomy and Physiology

Nervous System
A. Organization of Nervous System
• Neuron
• Neuroglia
• Classification and Properties of Nerve Fibre
• Electrophysiology
• Action Potential
• Nerve Impulse
• Receptors
• Synapse
• Neurotransmitters

Central Nervous System
• Meninges
• Ventricles of Brain and Cerebrospinal Fluid
• Structure and Functions of Brain (Cerebrum
Brain Stem, Functions of Afferent and Efferent Nerve Tracts
• Spinal Cord (Gross Structure, Reflex Activity)
b) Anatomy, physiology and functional areas of cerebrum

Digestive System
• Anatomy of GI Tract with Special Reference to Anatomy and Functions of Stomach
Acid Production in the Stomach
• Regulation of Acid Production through Parasympathetic Nervous System
• Pepsin Role in Protein Digestion
• Small Intestine and Large Intestine
• Anatomy and Functions of Salivary Glands,
Pancreas, and Liver
• Movements of GIT
• Digestion and absorption of Nutrients
• Disorders of GIT

. Energetics
• Formation and Role of ATP
• Creatine Phosphate

IV. Respiratory System
• Anatomy of Respiratory System with Special Reference to Anatomy of Lungs
• Mechanism of Respiration
• Transport of Respiratory Gases
• Regulation of Respiration
• Lung Volumes and Capacities
• Artificial Respiration
• Resuscitation Methods

V. Urinary System
• Anatomy of Urinary Tract with Special Reference to Anatomy of Kidney and Nephrons
• Functions of Kidney and Urinary Tract
• Physiology of Urine Formation
• Role of Kidneys in Acid-Base Balance
• Role of RAS in Kidney
• Micturition Reflex
• Disorders of Kidney

VI. Endocrine System
• Classification of Hormones
• Mechanism of Hormone Action
• Structure and Functions of Pituitary Gland
b) Adrenal gland
c) Thyroid and Parathyroid glands
d) Pancreas and gonads Pineal gland, Thymus
Disorders of Endocrine Glads

VII. Reproductive System
• Anatomy of Male and Female Reproductive System
• Functions of Male and Female Reproductive System
• Sex Hormones
• Physiology of Menstruation
• Fertilization
• Spermatogenesis
• Oogenesis
• Pregnancy and Parturition

VIII. Introduction to Genetics
• Chromosomes
• Genes and DNA
• Protein Synthesis
• Genetic Pattern of Inheritance