• Introduction, classification, chemical nature, and biological role of carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, amino acids, and proteins

• Concept of free energy, endergonic and exergonic reactions, relationship between free energy, enthalpy, and entropy
• Redox potential, energy-rich compounds, classification, biological significance of ATP and cyclic AMP

Carbohydrate metabolism
• Glycolysis: pathway, energetics, and significance

• Citric acid cycle: pathway, energetics, and significance

• HMP shunt and its significance

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency

• Glycogen metabolism: pathways

• Gluconeogenesis: pathway and its significance
glycogen storage diseases (GSD)
Diabetes Mellitus
hormonal regulation of blood glucose level

Biological oxidation
Electron transport chain (ETC) and its mechanism
• Oxidative phosphorylation and its mechanism and
Substrate phosphorylation
Uncouplers of ETC;

Lipid metabolism
• β-Oxidation of saturated fatty acid (palmitic acid)
• Formation and utilization of ketone bodies, ketoacidosis
• De novo synthesis of fatty acids (palmitic acid)
• Biological significance of cholesterol and conversion of cholesterol into bile acids, steroid hormones, and vitamin D
• Disorders of lipid metabolism: hypercholesterolemia, atherosclerosis, fatty liver, and obesity

Amino acid metabolism
• General reactions of amino acid metabolism: transamination, deamination, decarboxylation,

urea cycle, and its disorders

• Catabolism of phenylalanine and tyrosine and their metabolic disorders (phenylketonuria, albinism, alkeptonuria, tyrosinemia)
• Synthesis and significance of biological substances: 5-HT, melatonin, dopamine, noradrenaline, adrenaline

• Catabolism of heme, hyperbilirubinemia, and jaundice

Nucleic acid metabolism and genetic information transfer
• Biosynthesis of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides
• Catabolism of purine nucleotides,

• Organization of mammalian genome
• Structure of DNA and RNA and their functions

and gout disease

• Transcription or RNA synthesis, translation or protein synthesis

Genetic Code

Inhibition of Protein synthesis

DNA Replication (semiconservative model)

• Introduction, properties, nomenclature, and IUB classification of enzymes
• Enzyme kinetics (Michaelis plot, Line Weaver Burke plot)
• Enzyme inhibitors with examples
• Regulation of enzymes: enzyme induction and repression, allosteric enzymes regulation
• Therapeutic and diagnostic applications of enzymes and isoenzymes

Coenzymes and their biochemical role and deficiency diseases.